HISTORY TODAY

-1783 – The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean- François Pilâtre de Rozier.
– 1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted of treason.
– 1809 – The Viceroy the Río de la Plata, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, opens the port of Buenos Aires to trade with nations other than Spain.
– 1815 – Napoleon begins his exile on Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.
– 1863 – American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks, killing its inventor.
– 1864 – American Civil War: The Union garrison of Glasgow, Missouri surrenders to Confederate forces.
– 1910 – Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.
– 1917 – World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by France for espionage.
– 1923 – The German Rentenmark is introduced in Germany to counter hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic.
– 1928 – The airship Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.
– 1932 – Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.
– 1939 – The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated.
– 1940 – President Lluís Companys of Catalonia is executed by the Francoist government.
– 1944 – World War II: Germany replaces the Hungarian government after it announces an
armistice with the Soviet Union.