 1739 – Peshva warrior Chimnaji Appa defeats Portuguese forces and captures Tarapur Fort, India.

 1835 – Slaves in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, stage a revolt, which is instrumental in ending slavery there 50 years later.

 1857 – The University of Calcutta is formally founded as the first fully fledged university in South Asia.

 1862 – Bucharest is proclaimed the capital of Romania.

 1908 – The first Boy Scout troop is organized in England by Robert Baden-Powell.

 1918 – The Gregorian calendar is introduced in Russia by decree of the Council of People’s Commissars effec- tive February 14(NS).

 1946 – The United Nations General Assembly passes its first resolution to establish the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission.

 1984 – Apple Computer places the Macintosh personal computer on sale in the United States.

 1990 – Japan launches Hiten, the country’s first lunar probe, the first robotic lunar probe since the Soviet Union’s Luna 24 in 1976, and the first lunar probe launched by a country other than Soviet Union or the United States.

 2003 – The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation.