 1656 – Blaise Pascal publishes the first of his Lettres provinciales.

 1912 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.

 1941 – Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States nego- tiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.

 1950 – The Knesset resolves that Jerusalem is the capi- tal of Israel.

 1957 – American inventor Walter Frederick Morrison sells the rights to his flying disc to the Wham-O toy company, which later renames it the “Frisbee”.

 1986 – The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts its first members: Little Richard, Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, The Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Elvis Presley.

 2001 – Five people attempt to set themselves on fire in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square, an act that many people later claim is staged by the Communist Party of China to frame Falun Gong and thus escalate their persecu- tion.

 2002 – U.S. journalist Daniel Pearl is kidnapped in Karachi, Pakistan and subsequently murdered.