1865 – Dr Mary Edwards Walker receives the US Medal of Honor, becoming the first woman to receive the award.
1869 – The Victorian Aboriginal Protection Act is enact- ed in Australia, giving the government control of indigenous people’s wages, their terms of employment, where they could live, and of their children, effectively leading to the Stolen Generations.
1930 – Patent number US1781541 is awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention, the Einstein refrigerator.
1966 – NASA launches Gemini 12.
1993 – A sculpture honoring women who served in the Vietnam War is dedicated at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.
1999 – The House of Lords Act is given Royal Assent, restricting membership of the British House of Lords by virtue of a hereditary peerage.
2004 – The Palestine Liberation Organization confirms the death of Yasser Arafat from unidentified causes. Mahmoud Abbas is elected chairman of the PLO min- utes later.
2014 – Fifty-eight people are killed in a bus crash in the Sukkur District in southern Pakistan’s Sindh province.