HISTORY TODAY

 1788 – The first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from Great Britain to Australia arrive at Botany Bay.

 1896 – An X-ray generating machine is exhibited for the first time by H. L. Smith.

 1915 – Japan issues the “Twenty-One Demands” to the Republic of China in a bid to increase its power in East Asia.

 1977 – Scientists identify a previously unknown bac- terium as the cause of the mysterious Legionnaires’ dis- ease.

 1983 – The International Olympic Committee restores Jim Thorpe’s Olympic medals to his family.

 2005 – The Airbus A380, the world’s largest commer- cial jet, is unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse, France

 2008 – The Euphronios Krater is unveiled in Rome after being returned to Italy by the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

 2018 – A bus catches fire on the Samara–Shymkent road in Yrgyz District, Aktobe, Kazakhstan. The fire kills 52 passengers, with three passengers and two driv- ers escaping.

 2019 – An oil pipeline explosion near Tlahuelilpan, Hidalgo, Mexico, kills 137 people.