 1888 – The James Lick telescope at the Lick Observatory, measuring 91 cm in diameter, is used for the first time. It was the largest refracting telescope in the world at the time.

 1919 – At the Paris Peace Conference, Emir Faisal I of Iraq signs an agreement with Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann on the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

 1946 – Popular Canadian American jockey George Woolf dies in a freak accident during a race; the annual George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award is created to honor him.

 1956 – A fire damages the top part of the Eiffel Tower.

 1957 – The Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first elec- tric watch.

 1959 – Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. state.  1962 – Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.

 1977 – Apple Computer is incorporated.

 1993 – In Moscow, Russia, George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty(START).

 1994 – More than seven million people from the former apartheid Homelands receive South African citizenship.

 1999 – The Mars Polar Lander is launched by NASA.  2000 – Final daily edition of the Peanuts comic strip.

 2018 – Computer analysts report two major security vulnerabil- ities, named “Meltdown” and “Spectre,” affecting the micro- processors of almost all computers in the world.