HISTORY TODAY

 1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded by a group of six engineers; Thomas Telford would later become its first president.

 1833 – Captain James Onslow, in the Clio, arrives at Port Egmont to reassert British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

 1900 – American statesman and diplomat John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.

 1954 – India establishes its highest civilian awards, the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan.

 1959 – Luna 1, the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, is launched by the Soviet Union.

 1974 – United States President Richard Nixon signs a bill lowering the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.

 1975 – At the opening of a new railway line, a bomb blast at Samastipur, Bihar, India, fatally wounds Lalit Narayan Mishra, Minister of Railways.

 1978 – On the orders of the President of Pakistan, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, paramilitary forces opened fire on peaceful protesting workers in Multan, Pakistan; it is known as 1978 massacre at Multan Colony Textile Mills.

 1993 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The Sri Lanka Navy kill 35-100 civilians on the Jaffna Lagoon.

 2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that are returned to Earth