 1704 – Battle of Chamkaur: During the Mughal-Sikh Wars, an outnumbered Sikh Khalsa defeats a Mughal army.

 1897 – London becomes the world’s first city to host licensed taxicabs.

 1917 – World War I: USS Jacob Jones is the first American destroyer to be sunk by enemy action when it is torpedoed by German submarine SM U-53.

 1921 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London by British and Irish representatives.

 1922 – One year to the day after the signing of the Anglo- Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State comes into existence.

 1953 – Vladimir Nabokov completes his controversial novel Lolita.

 1971 – Pakistan severs diplomatic relations with India, initiating the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.

 1992 – The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, India, is demol- ished, leading to widespread riots causing the death of over 1,500 people.

 2006 – NASA reveals photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars.

 2017 – Donald Trump’s administration officially announces the recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel.