HISTORY TODAY

 1947 – American scientists John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain observe the basic principles of the transistor, a key ele- ment for the electronics revolution of the 20th century.

 1950 – Lhamo Dondrub is officially named the 14th Dalai Lama.

 1969 – Cold War: Negotiators from the Soviet Union and the United States meet in Helsinki, Finland to begin SALT I negotia- tions aimed at limiting the number of strategic weapons on both sides.

 1973 – Watergate scandal: In Orlando, Florida, U.S. President Richard Nixon tells 400 Associated Press managing editors “I am not a crook.”

 1979 – Brisbane Suburban Railway Electrification. The first stage from Ferny Grove to Darra is commissioned.

 1990 – Fugendake, part of the Mount Unzen volcanic complex, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, becomes active again and erupts.

 1993 – United States House of Representatives passes a resolu- tion to establish the North American Free Trade Agreement.

 1997 – In Luxor, Egypt, 62 people are killed by six Islamic militants outside the Temple of Hatshepsut, known as Luxor massacre.

 2013 – Fifty people are killed when Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 crashes at Kazan Airport, Russia.

 2019 – The first known case of COVID-19 is traced to a 55-year- old man who had visited a market in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.